The story goes that al-Shāfi'ī triumphed in the argument over Fityan, who, being intemperate, resorted to abuse. [10], Al-Shāfi'ī traveled to Baghdad to study with Abu Hanifah's acolyte al-Shaybānī and others. He was born in Gaza by the town of Asqalan in 150 AH (767 CE). Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. The discussion focused on the main problems, namely: the method of understanding the hadith of Imam Syafi'i. That is evident when he said, ^A poem is the type of words that is arranged. The precise reasons for his departure from Iraq are uncertain, but it was in Egypt that he would meet another tutor, Sayyida Nafisa bint Al-Hasan, who would also financially support his studies,[3][4][5] and where he would dictate his life's works to students. A Mujadid appears at the end of every century: The Mujtahid of the 1st century was Imam of Ahlul Sunnah, Umar bin Abdul Aziz. The story goes that al-Shāfi'ī triumphed in the argument over Fityan, who, being intemperate, resorted to abuse. "Imam, I will read it myself from memory without a book." 15–16 (Translator's Introduction). T he contributions of Imam Shafi’i. [19] However, al-Shāfi'ī was also known to have suffered from a serious intestinal illness/hemorrhoids,[20] which kept him frail and ailing during the later years of his life. He claimed that the game of chess was an image of war, and it was possible to play chess as a mental exercise for the solution of military tactics. Little is known about al-Shāfi‘ī's early life in Mecca, except that he was brought up in poor circumstances and that from his youth he was devoted to learning. Other accounts state that the famous Hanafi jurist, Muḥammad ibn al-Ḥasan al-Shaybānī, was present at the court and defended al-Shāfi‘ī as a well-known student of the sacred law. Several of his leading disciples would write down what al-Shāfi'ī said, who would then have them read it back aloud so that corrections could be made. Caliph Al-Ma'mun is said to have offered al-Shāfi'ī a position as a judge, but he declined the offer. Al-Shāfi‘ī belonged to the Qurayshi clan of Banu Muttalib, which was the sister clan of the Banu Hashim, to which the Prophet Muhammad and the 'Abbasid caliphs belonged. Fityan's supporters were enraged by this treatment and attacked Shafi'i in retaliation after one of his lectures. Muhammad ibn Idris al-Shafi'i (767-820) was one of Islam's foundational legal thinkers. Muhammad Shakir (Cairo, 1940), 84, The Levels of the Shafiee scholars by Imam As-Subki طبقات الشافعية للسبكي. For the village in Iran, see, Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Idris al-Shafi'i in, Scholars of other Sunni Islamic schools of jurisprudence, أَبُو عَبْدِ ٱللهِ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ إِدْرِيسَ ٱلشَّافِعِيُّ, Apprenticeship under Al-Shaybānī, and exposure to Hanafī Jurists, Ibn Abi Hatim, Manaaqibush-Shaafi'ee, pg. L’Imam Malik rahimahuLlah, lui dit un jour : « O fils de mon frère ! The following is what seems to be a sensible reading, according to a modern reductionist perspective. [10] However, al-Shāfi‘ī grew up in poverty, in spite of his connections in the highest social circles. Al-Shāfi‘ī was authorized to issue fatwas at the age of fifteen ..[14], Al-Shāfi‘ī moved to Al-Medinah in a desire for further legal training,[10] as was the tradition of acquiring knowledge. Al-Shafi‘i loved the Islamic prophet Muhammad very deeply. "Where his contemporaries and their predecessors had engaged in defining Islam as a social and historical phenomenon, Shafi'i sought to define a revealed Law."[29]. This paper aims to determine the sociological factors which underlying the birth of the old fatwas (qaul qadim) and the new fatwas of Imam Shafi'i. Abū ʿAbdillāh Muhammad ibn Idrīs al-Shāfi‘ī; Abu ʿAbdillah Muhammad ibn Idris al-Shafi‘i with Islamic calligraphy. Fearing the waste of his sharīf lineage, his mother decided to move to Mecca when he was about two years old. [10] Even though he would later disagree with some of the views of Imam Mālik, al-Shāfi‘ī accorded the deepest respect to him by always referring to him as "the Teacher". Some are good and some are bad. [10] Whilst other conspirators were put to death, al-Shafi'i's own eloquent defense convinced the Caliph to dismiss the charge. The first three books on the subject have not reached us viz. One anecdote states that he would always cover one side of a book while reading because a casual glance at the other page would commit it to memory. Son ascendance remonte jusqu’à Ya’rab fils de Yachjab fils de Qahtan. [13] By the age of seven, al-Shāfi‘ī had memorized the Qur’an. by Dr. M. Hamidullah. For the village in Iran, see, Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Idris al-Shafi'i in, Scholars of other Sunni Islamic schools of jurisprudence, أَبُو عَبْدِ ٱللهِ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ إِدْرِيسَ ٱلشَّافِعِيُّ, Apprenticeship under Al-Shaybānī, and exposure to Hanafī Jurists, Ibn Abi Hatim, Manaaqibush-Shaafi'ee, pg. [10] Some authorities stress the difficulties encountered by him in his arguments. [15] It was here that he developed his first madh'hab, influenced by the teachings of both Imam Abu Hanifa and Imam Malik. Abu Hanifah's Kitab al-Ra'y, and Abu Yusuf's and Muhammad ibn al-Hasan al-Shaybani's books bearing the title Kitab al-Usul.The earliest work which has reached us was written by al-Shafi'i, a student of al-Shaybani. [10], Nafisah was a descendant of the Islamic Nabi (Prophet) Muhammad, through his grandson Hasan ibn Ali, who married another descendant of Muhammad, that is Is-haq al-Mu'tamin the son of the Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq, who was reportedly a teacher of ash-Shafi'i's teacher Malik ibn Anas[2][17]:121 and Abu Hanifah. [11][15] He proved to be a just administrator but soon became entangled with factional jealousies. [6] Born in Gaza in Palestine (Jund Filastin), he also lived in Mecca and Medina in the Hejaz, Yemen, Egypt, and Baghdad in Iraq. [citation needed] The four Sunni legal schools or madhhabs keep their traditions within the framework that Shafi'i established. Even in later eras, his speeches and works were used by Arabic grammarians. In 803 CE, al-Shāfi‘ī was accused of aiding the 'Alids in an Alid revolt, and was thus summoned in chains with a number of 'Alids to the Caliph Harun ar-Rashid at Raqqa. [citation needed]. With this systematization of shari'a, he provided a legacy of unity for all Muslims and forestalled the development of independent, regionally based legal systems. Among the followers of Imam al-Shāfi‘ī’s school were: In addition to this, al-Shafi'i was an eloquent poet, who composed many short poems aimed at addressing morals and behavior. Le deuxième siècle de l’Hégire témoigna de l’apparition de deux grandes écoles de jurisprudence islamique : l’école dite de l’opinion (Madrasat Ar-Ra’y) et celle appelée l’école du Hadîth (Madrasat Al-Hadîth). One anecdote states that he would always cover one side of a book while reading because a casual glance at the other page would commit it to memory. He wore a ring that was inscribed with the words, "Allah suffices Muhammad ibn Idris as a reliance." [10], Al-Shāfi'ī traveled to Baghdad to study with Abu Hanifah's acolyte al-Shaybānī and others. Helal M Abu Taher, Char Imam(Four Imams), Islamic Foundation, Dhaka,1980. CONTRIBUTION OF AL-SHAFI`I. Personal Details; Title: Shaykh al-Islām: Born: 767 CE/150 AH Gaza, Palestine: Died: 20 January, 820 CE/30 Rajab, 204 AH (aged 52-53) [10] The first real biography is by Ahmad Bayhaqi (died 458 AH/1066 CE) and is filled with what a modernist eye would qualify as pious legends. Abū ʿAbdillāh Muhammad ibn Idrīs al-Shāfiʿī (Arabic: أَبُو عَبْدِ ٱللهِ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ إِدْرِيسَ ٱلشَّافِعِيُّ‎, 767–820 CE) was an Arab Muslim theologian, writer, and scholar, who was the first contributor of the principles of Islamic jurisprudence (Uṣūl al-fiqh). [12] He studied under Muslim ibn Khalid az-Zanji, the Mufti of Mecca then, who is thus considered to be the first teacher of Imam al-Shāfi‘ī. He was given the title of Nasir al-Sunnah, the Defender of the Sunnah. Imam Ahmad is also claimed to have said, "Not one of the scholars of hadith touched an inkwell nor a pen except he owed a huge debt to al-Shafi’i. The precise cause of his death is thus unknown. [citation needed], It was here that al-Shāfi'ī actively participated in legal arguments with the Hanafī jurists, strenuously defending the Mālikī school of thought. Saladin's brother Afdal built a mausoleum for him in 1211 after the defeat of the Fatamids. » Une autre fois, il lui dit : « Mouhammad ! At ten, he had committed Imam Malik's Muwatta' to heart, at which time his teacher would deputize him to teach in his absence. Chess could not be played for a stake, but if a player was playing for a mental exercise, he was not doing anything illegal. Accounts differ on the age in which he set out to Medina; an account placed his age at thirteen,[11] while another stated that he was in his twenties. [1], At least one authority states that al-Shāfi'ī died as a result of injuries sustained from an attack by supporters of a Maliki follower named Fityan. Muhammad Shakir (Cairo, 1940), 84, The Levels of the Shafiee scholars by Imam As-Subki طبقات الشافعية للسبكي. [36] While earlier, sunnah had been used to refer to tribal manners and customs,[37] (and while Al-Shāfi‘ī distinguished between the non-authoritative "sunnah of the Muslims" that was followed in practice, and the "sunnah of the Prophet" that Muslims should follow),[29] sunnah came to mean the Sunnah of Muhammad. Fearing the waste of his sharīf lineage, his mother decided to move to Mecca when he was about two years old. [citation needed], It was here that al-Shāfi'ī actively participated in legal arguments with the Hanafī jurists, strenuously defending the Mālikī school of thought. He was the most prominent student of Imam Malik ibn Anas, and he also served as the Governor of Najar. Accounts differ on the age in which he set out to Medina; an account placed his age at thirteen,[11] while another stated that he was in his twenties. Al-Shāfi'ī biographers all agree that the legacy of works under his name are the result of those sessions with his disciples. [6] Born in Gaza in Palestine (Jund Filastin), he also lived in Mecca and Medina in the Hejaz, Yemen, Egypt, and Baghdad in Iraq. One of the schools – Shafi'i fiqh – is named for Al-Shāfi‘ī. According to him, Imam Shafi’i ruled it was disliked because of the differences of opinion on the matter [khurujan min al-khilaf]. Provided the player took care that his fondness for chess did not cause him to break any other rule of life, he saw no harm in playing chess. [citation needed] His work thus became known as "al Madhhab al Qadim lil Imam as Shafi’i," or the Old School of al-Shafi'i. Autres vidéos islamiques du même genre: Je ne suis pas - أنا لست [Poème] He claimed that the game of chess was an image of war, and it was possible to play chess as a mental exercise for the solution of military tactics. [11] His father died in Ash-Sham while he was still a child. Note: Citations are based on reference standards. L’imam Ahmad par exemple n’a pas composé d’ouvrage de jurisprudence ni n’a appelé les gens à imiter aveuglement ses avis. [21], Al-Shāfi'ī died at the age of 54 on the 30th of Rajab in 204 AH (20 January 820 CE), in Al-Fustat, Egypt, and was buried in the vault of the Banū ‘Abd al-Hakam, near Mount al-Muqattam. [10], Al-Shāfi'ī eventually returned to Baghdad in 810 CE. [10], In Mecca, al-Shāfi'ī began to lecture at the Sacred Mosque, leaving a deep impression on many students of law, including the famous Hanbali jurist, Ahmad Ibn Hanbal. Imam al-Shafi'i Malise Ruthven (2000), in his book Islam in the World, writes that Imam al-Shafi'i has long stood out as the greatest scholar and systemitizer of Islam. A biographical sketch was written by Zakarīya b. Yahya al-Sājī was later reproduced, but even then, a great deal of legend had already crept into the story of al-Shāfi‘i's life. Diwan al-Imam al-shafi'i, (book of poems – al-shafi'i) p. 100; Dar El-Mrefah Beirut – Lebanon 2005. International propagation of Salafism and Wahhabism, "Great Women in Islamic History: A Forgotten Legacy", "Tour Egypt :: The Mausoleum of Imam al-Shafi", "Islamic Law; the impact of Joseph Schacht", The Life of Imam al-Shafi'i at Lost Islamic History, Diagram of teachers and students of Imam Shafi'i, Shahab al-Din Yahya ibn Habash Suhrawardi, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Al-Shafiʽi&oldid=993306483, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles having same image on Wikidata and Wikipedia, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from February 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2015, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2019, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Abu Muhammad Abdullah ibn Abdul Hakam (died 829) wrote biographies and history books, student of Malik ibn Anas, Key: Travelled extensively collecting the sayings of Muhammad and compiled books of hadith. He designated the four principles/sources/components of fiqh, which in order of importance are: Scholar John Burton goes farther, crediting Al-Shafi'i not just with establishing the science of fiqh in Islam, but its importance to the religion. The Salafi movement, also called the Salafist movement, Salafiya and Salafism, is a reform branch movement within Sunni Islam that developed in Egypt in the late 19th century as a response to Western European imperialism.